Responding to the articles of Jeff Kenney, Amira Sonbol, and William Shepard, Mark Sedgwick first modifies his original typology to include William Shepard's proposed category of "establishment." While applauding many of Jeff Kenney's points, Sedgwick defends the use of typologies of Western origin, such as his own, when discussing Islamic sects. Although he accepts Amira Sonbol's call for deeper analysis than is provided by the sociological classification of sects, Sedgwick argues for keeping the study of the origins and nature of a sect separate from the investigation of the reasons for the presence or absence of wide support for a sect. He finally examines al-Qa'ida, showing that in terms of his own typology it is an "outward-oriented" sect. He suggests that al-Qa'ida is closer to an "interest group" than to other category generally accepted in political science.